It slows down the rate in which our brain sends out chemical messages to the rest of the body. Both of these compounds are used widely in the chemical industry. Substance use carries risk. If injected, the effects of G are felt almost immediately and these will vary dependent on:. The most common effects of G are:.
Little is known about the long-term effects that G has on the body. The difference between the amount needed for a high to that of a fatal dose can be difficult to judge. If you're going to use any form of drug, go about it safely.
You make the choices that determine what substances you put into your body. We've got some helpful tips to consider. Avoid sharing injecting equipment if possible. Be aware of where blood may end up in the process of injecting.
Wash your hands and clean the area where you've prepped to inject. Injecting drug use and the sharing of equipment may increase your risk of:. Due to the enormous range, users can never be sure of how much they are actually taking. The difference between a dose that gives a pleasureable effect and one that lands you in hospital is very minimal. The majority of deaths appear to have been caused by the use of G in association with alcohol or other drugs.
The effect of G in combination with other drugs including over-the-counter or prescribed medication is unpredictable. Changes in the concentration of ARV's is a result of two or more drugs interacting. Know your limits, know your body and be aware of the impact that other substances may have on your treatment.
We're unaware of any interactions or cross interaction between G and ARV's but this does not mean that it's safe to cut sick on it mate. Always excercise caution if mixing drugs.Their euphoric effect has made them popular in club and party environments. GHB gamma-hydroxybutyrate exists naturally, but in small amounts, in human cells. It is a neurochemical and also influences other neurotransmitters, including GABA gamma-aminobutyric acid and dopamine.
At low doses, GHB represses dopamine release. But, in high doses, it prompts dopamine release. It also boosts serotonin and inhibits the release of adrenaline. The drug was originally developed in the s for use in anesthesia.
However, due to adverse side effects such as seizures, it is rarely used for this purpose. It also sometimes used to treat narcolepsy and to help people recover from alcoholism. InGHB was available in health food stores as a treatment for insomnia and for its growth-hormone-enhancing properties. But following several poisonings, GHB was promptly removed from the market and banned in This means that it has no approved medical purpose and a high potential for abuse.
Today, GHB is most commonly thought of as a club drug or date-rape drug. As the former, users take small doses to lower inhibitions and induce feelings of well-being. Perhaps for these reasons, some say it acts as an aphrodisiac. In excessive doses, however, GHB can cause extreme sedation and unconsciousness and also repress the formation of memories. This fact makes it very effective as a date rape drug. As a central nervous system CNS depressant, it can prove fatal when taken in combination with alcohol or other depressants, such as opioids or benzodiazepines.
The risk for this may be higher if a person has ingested the drug without their knowledge. And as with many street drugs, the composition and potency of GHB can vary. Moreover, there is often no way users can know just precisely how powerful a dose may be, which increases the risk of overdose and death.
The effects that GHB has on a user may be different from one person to the next.
Factors like stomach contents, whether a person used other substances, and individual biology can cause the effects to vary. However, effects are usually experienced within 10—20 minutes, and about 45—90 minutes later, they will often begin to subside. Sleepiness or grogginess may occur for up to 12 hours after use.
The physical effects of GHB are highly dose-dependent, and each individual may have a slightly different response, a fact that makes GHB use even riskier. Fortunately, the number of people who report having used GHB in their lifetime has been gradually declining since around Because the ban has made GHB somewhat more challenging to obtain, some people have begun to seek out GBL as an alternative.
For example, it is commonly found in pain strippers, nail polish remover and stain remover as a solvent. Because of its chemical similarity, GBL, although a biologically inactive compound, metabolizes in the body to produce a drug. Furthermore, its effects are indistinguishable. This places users at an even higher risk of overdose than GHB, although the effects of either drug can be very severe and include life-threatening CNS depression, respiratory arrest, coma, and death.
In fact, an unintentional overdose of both substances is very easy. Even half of a millimeter of GBL or half of a dram of GHB in excess of a moderate dose can induce a deep sleep, where the person could potentially aspirate on their own vomit.
Also, due to memory-inhibiting properties, the danger of losing track of how much a person has ingested especially because it can be administered unknown to the user in a drink is much higher. This route of administration may lead to a greater likelihood of accidental overdose. One sip too many can be the difference between euphoric effects and debilitating unconsciousness.
Even two weeks of daily use can result in dependence, which tends to result in intense cravings, depressed mood, insomnia, and anxiety, unless the person uses the drug every few hours.Gamma hydroxybutyrate GHB was originally synthesised for use as an anaesthetic.
It usually comes as a clear liquid with a bitter aftertaste, but can also be a white powder or a bright blue liquid known as blue nitro. It is usually swallowed as a liquid or mixed in a drink and is uncommon in New Zealand.
The effects of GHB depend on the size, weight and health of the person taking it. All drug use brings a risk of harm. The best way to stay safe is to plan, know your limits and how GHB affects you. Go out with people you trust, and know how you are getting home, or where you are staying.
It only takes a small amount of GHB to get the desired effects, and the difference between how much you need to get high and how much could be fatal can be difficult to judge.
Research has also shown that GHB can vary widely in strength. Mixing drugs is always risky because it is hard to predict how they will interact. Especially avoid using other depressants and alcohol alongside GHB as this greatly increases the risk of overdose and death.
There is a high risk of overdose with GHB. A standard dose is very small and using a bit more can result in an overdose which can be fatal. If you decide to cut back or stop after using GHB frequently, you may experience withdrawal symptoms. Talk to a trusted friend or family member about your plan and ask them to look out for you and support you. Alternatively, call the Alcohol and Drug Helpline on for confidential, non-judgmental advice and referral to a local service provider.
If you are only ready to think about cutting back, you might want to consider starting by buying less so you use less, delaying your first session of the day, and using a smaller amount than usual. GHB has been referred to as a 'date-rape' drug due to the small amount that results in intoxication and the reduced inhibition and memory loss that occurs.
While it has been used this way, it is generally less common than thought. It is expensive, has a strong taste and is much more likely that drinks are spiked with additional alcohol.
If someone's drink has been spiked it will affect them very quickly with a dramatic increase in their intoxication with difficultly staying awake or communicating. Look after them and ensure they get home safe. If they are falling unconscious ring We believe that access to accurate, clear information is essential to reduce drug-related harm.
This index provides harm reduction advice for drugs that are common in New Zealand. How to be safer All drug use brings a risk of harm. When to get help There is a high risk of overdose with GHB. Cutting down You may be experiencing substance use disorder if you are: using more GHB than you want to finding it hard to stop using missing school, work or family commitments always thinking about GHB have to use a lot to get the same effect If you decide to cut back or stop after using GHB frequently, you may experience withdrawal symptoms.
Things to think about GHB has been referred to as a 'date-rape' drug due to the small amount that results in intoxication and the reduced inhibition and memory loss that occurs. Drug Index We believe that access to accurate, clear information is essential to reduce drug-related harm. Be mindful if using meth It's safest not to use meth. But if you do, you need to be mindful. Are you drinking too much alcohol? A safe space to talk openly and honestly about your relationship with alcohol.Euphoria, increased sex drive, and tranquility are reported positive effects of GHB abuse.
Negative effects may include sweating, loss of consciousness, nausea, hallucinations, amnesia, and coma, among other side effects. Xyrem sodium oxybatea brand name prescription drug was approved by the Food and Drug Administration FDA in for the treatment of narcolepsy, a sleep disorder that causes excessive sleepiness and recurring daytime sleep attacks.
It is the sodium salt of gamma hydroxybutyrate. Xyrem is a highly regulated drug in the U. It is a Schedule III controlled substance, and requires patient enrollment in a restricted access program.
GHB is also a naturally-occurring metabolite of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA found in the brain. The naturally-occurring metabolite GHB is present in much lower concentrations in the brain than those levels found when the drug is abused. As a result of fermentation, natural GHB may also be found in small but insignificant quantities in some beers and wines. GHB is available as an odorless, colorless drug that may be combined with alcohol and given to unsuspecting victims prior to sexual assaults.
It may have a soapy or salty taste. Victims become incapacitated due to the sedative effects of GHB, and they are unable to resist sexual assault. GHB may also induce amnesia in its victim. Common user groups include high school and college students and rave party attendees who use GHB for its intoxicating effects.
GHB has also been postulated to have anabolic effects due to protein synthesis, and has been used by body-builders for muscle building and reducing fat. GHB is bought on the streets or over the Internet in liquid form or as a white powdered material for illicit use.
It is taken orally and is frequently combined with alcohol. Much of the GHB found on the streets or over the Internet is produced in illegal labs. GHB may be adulterated with unknown contaminants that may worsen its toxicity.
Xyrem is not available at regular retail pharmacies. If Xyrem is trafficked as a recreational drug, its status converts to Schedule I and it becomes an illegal drug.
Only five percent of the parent drug is excreted via the kidneys. However, immediate negative effects of GHB use may include:. GHB can have an addictive potential if used repeatedly. Withdrawal effects may include insomnia, anxiety, tremors, and sweating.It is the simplest 4-carbon lactone. It is mainly used as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals, e.
GBL has been found in extracts from samples of unadulterated wines. GBL can be found in cheese flavourings but typically results in a content of 0. The purification takes place with a liquid-gas-phase extraction.
In the laboratory, it may also be obtained via the oxidation of tetrahydrofuran THFfor example with aqueous sodium bromate. As a lactoneGBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma -hydroxybutyratethe sodium salt of gamma -hydroxybutyric acid.
In acidic water, a mixture of the lactone and acid forms coexist in an equilibrium. These compounds then may go on to form the polymer poly 4-hydroxybutyrate as well as the dimer 1,6-Dioxecane-2,7-dione.
When treated with a non-nucleophilic base, such as lithium diisopropylamideGBL undergoes deprotonation alpha to the carbonyl. The related compound caprolactone can be used to make a polyester in this manner.
The ring-opening polymerization of butyrolactone gives polybutyrolactone. The resulting reverts to the monomer by thermal cracking. Butyrolactone is principally a precursor to other chemicals. Reaction with methylamine gives NMP. Ammonia gives pyrrolidone. It is also used as a solvent in lotions and some polymers. Butyrolactone, with its wide liquid range, chemical stability and high dielectric constantis used in some batteries but primarily is found in electrolytic capacitors as the organic solvent.
GHB or Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate
In this capacity, it is frequently mixed with a small ratio of ethylene glycol, "" being common, to vary internal resistivity. Recently GBL has become an important solvent for the development of organic perovskites such as Methylammonium lead halidenovel solar cell materials that can be processed from solution. GBL is a good solvent for the precursor salts such as lead halides and methylammonium iodide or formamidinium iodide.
GBL is an alternative to the more toxic solvent dimethylformamide that was used in the earlier stages of the development of the perovskite solar cell. GBL is not active in its own right; its mechanism of action stems from its identity as a prodrug of GHB. Because of these pharmacokinetic differences, GBL tends to be more potent and faster-acting than GHB, but has a shorter duration; whereas the related compound 1,4-butanediol 1,4-B tends to be slightly less potent, slower to take effect but longer-acting than GHB.
GBL has a distinctive taste and odour, described as being comparable to stale water, synthetic melon aroma or burnt plastic. This differs significantly from GHB, which is described as having a decidedly "salty" taste.Focus on making your writing clear and concise, and using evidence from the passage. The math section has been changed the least for the new SAT, but there are changes you should be aware of as you start studying. There is less geometry focused on shapes, and fewer abstract questions.
This is the section that is the least dramatically changed, so the old study principles for SAT Math are still in place. As you practice, we recommend using a notebook to keep track of the mistakes you make and why you make them. This will make it easier for you to zero in on your thought processes and figure out why you make mistakes, which will make it easier to fix them.
Also, practice both with and without a calculator. At the very least, take an ACT practice test and see how you do. If it seems considerably more manageable for you than the SAT (based on old SAT questions), it might be worth it to just study for the ACT instead.
Either way, definitely work ACT practice questions into your studying for the new SAT. The tests are getting similar, so use that fact to your advantage. If nothing else, you can save money on test prep materials. Read detailed breakdowns of the new SAT sections: math, critical reading, writing, and the essay. Understanding the new SAT is the first step to doing well on it. Curious about the ACT. Learn the key differences between the ACT and old SAT, and how the ACT is scored.
Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points. We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: hbspt. In high school, she earned 99th percentile ACT scores as well as 99th percentile scores on SAT subject tests.
She also took nine AP classes, earning a perfect score of 5 on seven AP tests.
Dangers of GHB and GBL Drug
As a graduate of a large public high school who tackled the college admission process largely on her own, she is passionate about helping high school students from different backgrounds get the knowledge they need to be successful in the college admissions process. Home PrepScholar SAT Who we are how it works results pricing tutoring groups sample lesson Contact us become an instructor SAT online prep blog Become an adverstising partner go to PrepScholar ACT prep Questions.
There is absolutely no charge. You will be added to our email list so that you will be kept abreast of Brave Writer's materials and classes.This website assumes no responsibility for the actions by and makes no representation or endorsement of any activities offered by an advertiser. VI Consensus: Consists of the current betting line which occurs most frequently among our list of Las Vegas and Online sportsbooks. All Game Times are Eastern Standard Time.
Sixers in Eastern matchup By OddsShark November 30 Ravens a TD betting favorite vs. Texans for Monday night By OddsShark November 25 Packers double-digit underdogs vs. It will be the first time since 2002 that Army was coming into the game having won the year before. Last year, Army put an end to Navy's 14-game win streak -- the longest win streak for either team in the series' history -- by beating the Midshipmen 21-17.
After going 8-5 last year to finish with its first winning record since 2010, and only its second since 1996, Army is 8-3 this season and could still reach 10 wins on the year. Yet, as impressive a turnaround has it has been for the Cadets under Jeff Monken, a loss to Navy would make the season feel like something of a disappointment.
As is typically the case for Army, the star of the show is quarterback Ahmad Bradshaw. Bradshaw's only attempted 39 passes on the season, so he isn't asked to throw much, but he does lead the team with 1,472 yards rushing as well as 11 touchdowns. Running back Darnell Woolfolk has 11 touchdowns as well to go with his 668 rushing yards on the season.
Navy: The Midshipmen have not had the kind of season they were hoping for. During the academy's first two seasons in the American Athletic Conference, it went 20-7 overall and 14-2 in conference play. This season, the Mids enter their season finale against Army at 6-5 and only 4-4 in the AAC. A loss to Army would give Navy six losses in a season for the first time since Ken Niumatalolo took over the program in 2008. The good news for Navy heading into this game is that if the team has had a serious deficiency in 2017, it's been its pass defense.Gamma Hydroxybuytric Acid (GHB)